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Instructions for authors

  • Language

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted) or German.

  • Submission

Manuscripts may be submitted in the form of original research reports and short research communications. Authors wishing to contribute review articles or preparing large papers should contact the editors before submitting the manuscript.
Please submit your manuscript electronically (as attached documents by e-mail) to the Editors at Diese E-Mail-Adresse ist gegen Spambots geschützt! JavaScript muss aktiviert werden, damit sie angezeigt werden kann. . Text and artwork should be submitted as separate files. Alternatively, you may send your manuscript files on any common data storage or three hard copies of your manuscript to the Editorial Office at

Editorial Office Zitteliana
Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie
Richard-Wagner-Str. 10
D-80333 München/Munich

In the case of Special Issues, manuscripts should be submitted to the Guest Editor(s). Authors should ensure that they submit manuscripts and meet any additional requirements in line with deadlines set by the Guest Editor(s) to ensure that the entire Special Issue can be published in a timely fashion.

  • Manuscript style

Manuscripts must be in double-spaced format, and lines numbered consecutively from the beginning of the manuscript. A font size of 12 pt, and left justification of the text are required. Do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc.

Do not import the figures into the text file but, instead, indicate their approximate locations directly on the manuscript.

  • Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. Any subsection is given a brief heading.


State the objectives of the work and background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications are described.

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on.

Title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Present the authors' affiliation addresses below the names. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication.

Abstract and key words

The abstract (less than 300 words) should help the reader to ascertain the paper. It states the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions. References should be avoided.
Propose up to ten key words at the end of the abstract.

Papers written in German must contain an English translation of the title, abstract, and key words.

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references.

Nomenclature must be in accordance with the latest edition of the International Codes.

Synonymy lists
Synonymy lists should be assembled according to the following examples:




Anas natator, nov. sp. – Milne-Edwards, vol. 1: p. 148, pl. 25, figs 14–22.
cf. Prosantorhinus sp. D – Guérin: pp. 203, 392, 401, 1052, 1054, 1057.
Marginotruncana concavata (Brotzen) – Pessagno: pp. 304–305, pl. 58, figs 1–3, 7–9; [thin sections; non pl. 58, figs 4–6]

Footnotes should be avoided. If they are necessary, number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers.

  • Artwork

Electronic artwork
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to the following format: TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 600 dpi. Please do not supply embedded graphics in your word processor document.

Photographs should be mounted on digital plates (174 x 250 mm). Plates should be numbered consecutively in the order to which they are referred to. Each individual photograph on a plate should be clearly marked with an Arabic number (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.). Use a clear, sans serif typeface (e.g., Arial) between 9 point and 12 point type size, preferably on a contrasting, white background.
If necessary use arrows and/or letters to indicate special features; refer to these arrows and letters in the captions.


Figures should be one column (82 mm) or two columns (170 mm) wide. If all artwork is presented in the form of Figures, these are numbered consecutively in the order they are referred to. If the manuscript contains both Plates and Figures, however, the Figures are called ‘Textfigures’ and numbered separately.

Please use the following abbreviations to refer to your artwork in the text: Fig., Figs, Textfig., Textfigs, Pl., Pls. Note that there is no full stop after abbreviations ending with the letter ‘s’.

Line drawings
All lettering, graph lines and points on graphs should be sufficiently large and bold to permit reproduction when the diagram has been reduced to a size suitable for inclusion in the journal. General titles of illustrations should appear in the figure caption, not in the figure itself.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (preferrably TIFF) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then we will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from the editorial office after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color in print or on the Web only.
Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to "gray scale" (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

A table should not exceed the printed area of the page. If this appears impossible, reversing columns and rows will often make the impossible possible.
Large tables should be avoided. Foldouts cannot be accepted. Instead of printing, extensive tables can be made available electronically as supplementary information on the journals website.
Tables must be numbered according to their sequence in the text. The text must include references to all tables. Each table must have a brief and self-explanatory title. Column headings should be brief.

  • References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).
In the text refer to the author's name (without initials) and year of publication, followed – if necessary – by a short reference to appropriate pages. If reference is made in the text to publications written by more than two authors the name of the first author should be used, followed by "et al.". This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list names of authors and all co-authors must be given in full. References in the text should be arranged chronologically.Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text.

The sporocarp conforms to the genus Mycocarpon, which has been established by Hutchinson (1955) for spheres surrounded by one or more layers of septate hyphae. Although Stubblefield et al. (1983: p. 1468) have questioned the presence of septa in Mycocarpon, this hyphal trait has later been documented convincinly in the Triassic M. asterineum (Taylor & White 1989). Because septa are unknown in any other fossil sporocarp genus (Davis & Leisman 1962; Stubblefield et al. 1983, 1984a,c; J.F. White, personal commun., 2008), their presence in M. cinctum is regarded as an important diagnostic feature at genus level.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed.

Reference style
All references cited in the text are to be listed at the end of the paper. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spellings of authors' names and publication years are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list. Do not type author's and editor's names in capitals.
The list of references should be arranged alphabetically by authors' names, and chronologically per author. If an author's name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors, the following order should be used: Publications of the single author, arranged according to publication year – publications of the same author with one co-author, arranged according to publication year – publications of the author with more than one co-author, arranged according to publication year.

References should be arranged according to the following examples:

a. Journal papers:
Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Miller CE, Cole GT. 1983. Studies in Carboniferous fungi. II. The structure and organization of Mycocarpon, Sporocarpon, Dubiocarpon, and Coleocarpon (Ascomycotina). American Journal of Botany 70, 1482–1498.

b. Monographs:
Zycha H, Siepmann R, Linnemann G. 1969. Mucorales. Eine Beschreibung aller Gattungen und Arten dieser Pilzgruppe. Lehre, Verlag von J. Cramer, viii + 355 p.

c. Edited volume papers:
Blair JE. 2009. Fungi. In: SB Hedges, S Kumar (Eds), The Timetree of Life. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 215–219.

d. Conference proceedings papers:
Koeniguer JC, Locquin MV. 1979. Un polypore fossile à spores porées du Miocène de Libye: Archeterobasidium syrtae, gen. et sp. nov. Comptes Rendus du 104e Congrès National des Sociétés Savantes, Bordeaux, fasc. I (Paléobotanique). Paris (France), Bibliothèque Nationale, 323–329.

e. Unpublished theses, reports, etc.:
Moustakas N. 1990. Relationships of morphological and physicochemical properties of Vertisols under Greek climate conditions. Ph.D. Thesis, Agricultural University Athens, Greece, 320 p.

f. Catalogues and maps:
Seward AC. 1894. The Wealden Flora. Part 1. Thallophyta – Pteridophyta. Catalogue of the Mesozoic plants in the Department of Geology, British Museum (Natural History). London, Stephen Austin and Sons, 179 p.
Berger K. 1982. Geologische Karte von Bayern 1:25000, Erläuterungen zum Blatt Nr. 6931 Weißenburg i. Bay. [with contributions by R Apel, K Bader, J Kröger, H Schmidt-Kaler, P Wellnhofer,  O Wittmann]. München, Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt.
Hagn H. 1973. Helvetikum-Zone. Das Helvetikum von Neubeuern am Inn. [mit Beiträgen von E Martini, W Ohmert]. In: H Wolff, Geologische Karte von Bayern 1:25000, Erläuterungen zum Blatt Nr. 8238 Neubeuern. München, Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt, 151–207 & 347–352.

In the case of publications in any language other than English, the original title is to be retained. Titles of publications in non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated, and a note such as '(in Russian)' or '(in Chinese, with English Abstract)' should be added at the end of the reference.

  • Supplementary data

We accept electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file.

  • Review and submission of a revised manuscript

All manuscripts will be reviewed, and authors are encouraged to suggest potential referees, although final choices will be made by the editors. Upon completion of the review process, the editor will inform the corresponding author of acceptance, acceptance after revision, or rejection of the manuscript.
After all changes requested by the reviewers and editor(s) have been incorporated into the text, the final version has to be submitted on disc or CD (PC- or Mac-format). Electronic copies of text and artwork should be submitted in one of the commonly used formats (e.g., MS-Word, Excel); supported are rtf, doc, xls (others upon request). To avoid incompatibility of software-versions, we encourage submission of rtf (Rich-Text-Format)-files. Text and artwork should be submitted as separate files. The following electronic image-and graphic-formats (loss-free/without compression) are accepted: tiff, eps, psd (others upon request; not Jpeg/jpg). Resolution for line drawings and photographic images is a minimum of 600 dpi at the final required size.